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Cashew Nut Seeds Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale)

Cashew Nut Seeds Cashew...

Price €3.45 (SKU: V 33
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5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong><strong>Cashew Nut Seeds  Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale)</strong><br /></strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 1 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <div> <p>The<span> </span><b>cashew tree</b><span> </span>(<i>Anacardium occidentale</i>) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew<span> </span>seed<span> </span>and the cashew<span> </span>apple.<span> </span>It can grow as high as 14 m (46 ft), but the dwarf cashew, growing up to 6 m (20 ft), has proved more profitable, with earlier maturity and higher yields.</p> <p>The species is native to<span> </span>Central America, the<span> </span>Caribbean Islands, and<span> </span>northern South America.<span> </span>Portuguese colonists in Brazil began exporting cashew nuts as early as the 1550s.<span> </span>In 2017,<span> </span>Vietnam,<span> </span>India, and<span> </span>Ivory Coast<span> </span>were the major producers.</p> <p>The cashew seed, often simply called a cashew, is widely consumed. It is eaten on its own, used in recipes, or processed into cashew cheese or<span> </span>cashew butter. The shell of the cashew seed yields derivatives that can be used in many applications including lubricants, waterproofing, paints, and arms production, starting in World War II.<span> </span>The cashew apple is a light reddish to yellow fruit, whose pulp can be processed into a sweet,<span> </span>astringent<span> </span>fruit drink or distilled into liquor.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Etymology">Etymology</span></h2> <p>Its English name derives from the Portuguese name for the fruit of the cashew tree<span> </span><i>caju</i><span> </span>(Portuguese pronunciation: [kaˈʒu]), which itself is derived from the<span> </span>Tupian<span> </span>word<span> </span><i>acajú</i>, literally meaning "nut that produces itself".<sup id="cite_ref-morton_1-2" class="reference">[1]</sup>The generic name "Anacardium" (derived from Greek ἀνά (aná), meaning "outside," and καρδία (kardía), meaning "heart", refers to the unusual location of the seed (the heart) outside of the fruit.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Habitat_and_growth">Habitat and growth</span></h2> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d5/Cashew_Flower.JPG/200px-Cashew_Flower.JPG" width="200" height="150" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Flower of cashew tree</div> </div> </div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/34/Cajueiro_Meconta.jpg/200px-Cajueiro_Meconta.jpg" width="200" height="133" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Cashew tree</div> </div> </div> <p>The cashew tree is large and<span> </span>evergreen, growing to 14 m (46 ft) tall, with a short, often irregularly shaped trunk. The<span> </span>leaves<span> </span>are spirally arranged, leathery textured, elliptic to obovate, 4–22 cm (1.6–8.7 in) long and 2–15 cm (0.79–5.91 in) broad, with smooth margins. The<span> </span>flowers<span> </span>are produced in a<span> </span>panicle<span> </span>or<span> </span>corymb<span> </span>up to 26 cm (10 in) long; each flower is small, pale green at first, then turning reddish, with five slender, acute<span> </span>petals<span> </span>7–15 mm (0.28–0.59 in) long.<span> </span>The largest cashew tree in the world<span> </span>covers an area around 7,500 m<sup>2</sup>(81,000 sq ft); it is located in<span> </span>Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.</p> <p>The fruit of the cashew tree is an<span> </span>accessory fruit<span> </span>(sometimes called a pseudocarp or false fruit).<sup id="cite_ref-morton_1-3" class="reference">[1]</sup><span> </span>What appears to be the fruit is an oval or<span> </span>pear-shaped<span> </span>structure, a<span> </span>hypocarpium, that develops from the<span> </span>pedicel<span> </span>and the receptacle of the cashew flower.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference">[5]</sup><span> </span>Called the cashew apple, better known in Central America as<span> </span><i>marañón</i>, it ripens into a yellow or red structure about 5–11 cm (2.0–4.3 in) long. It is edible and has a strong "sweet" smell and taste.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (March 2018)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup></p> <p>The true fruit of the cashew tree is a kidney or boxing-glove shaped<span> </span>drupe<span> </span>that grows at the end of the cashew apple. The drupe develops first on the tree, and then the pedicel expands to become the cashew apple.<sup id="cite_ref-morton_1-4" class="reference">[1]</sup><span> </span>Within the true fruit is a single<span> </span>seed, which is often considered a<span> </span>nut, in the culinary sense. The seed is surrounded by a double shell containing an allergenic<span> </span>phenolic<span> </span>resin,<span> </span>anacardic acid, a potent skin<span> </span>irritant<span> </span>chemically related to the better-known allergenic oil<span> </span>urushiol<span> </span>which is also a<span> </span>toxin<span> </span>found in the related<span> </span>poison ivy. Some people are<span> </span>allergic<span> </span>to cashews, but cashews are a less frequent<span> </span>allergen<span> </span>than tree nuts or<span> </span>peanuts.<sup id="cite_ref-Rosen_6-0" class="reference">[6]</sup></p> <p>While the cashew plant is native to northeast<span> </span>Brazil, the<span> </span>Portuguese<span> </span>took it to<span> </span>Goa, India, between 1560 and 1565. From there, it spread throughout Southeast Asia and eventually Africa.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Cashew_nut_and_shell">Cashew nut and shell</span></h2> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/16/Shelling_cashews.jpg/220px-Shelling_cashews.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> A woman uses a machine to shell cashews in Phuket, Thailand.</div> </div> </div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3c/CashewSnack.jpg/220px-CashewSnack.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Cashews as a snack</div> </div> </div> <p>Culinary uses for cashew seeds in<span> </span>snacking<span> </span>and cooking are similar to those for all tree seeds called nuts.</p> <p>Cashews are commonly used in<span> </span>Indian cuisine<span> </span>and<span> </span>Pakistani cuisine, whole for garnishing sweets or curries, or ground into a paste that forms a base of sauces for curries (e.g.,<span> </span><i>korma</i>), or some sweets (e.g.,<span> </span><i>kaju barfi</i>). It is also used in powdered form in the preparation of several Indian sweets and desserts. In<span> </span>Goan cuisine, both roasted and raw kernels are used whole for making curries and sweets. Cashews are also used in<span> </span>Thai<span> </span>and<span> </span>Chinese cuisines, generally in whole form. In the Philippines, cashew is a known product of<span> </span>Antipolo, and is eaten with<span> </span><i>suman</i>. The province of<span> </span>Pampanga<span> </span>also has a sweet dessert called<span> </span><i>turrones de casuy</i>, which is cashew<span> </span>marzipan<span> </span>wrapped in white wafers. In<span> </span>Indonesia, roasted and salted cashews are called<span> </span><i>kacang mete</i><span> </span>or<span> </span><i>kacang mede</i>, while the cashew apple is called<span> </span><i>jambu monyet</i><span> </span>(translates in English to monkey rose apple).</p> <p>In the 21st century, cashew cultivation increased in several African countries to meet the demands for manufacturing<span> </span>cashew milk, a<span> </span>plant milk<span> </span>alternative to<span> </span>dairy milk.<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference">[7]</sup><span> </span>In<span> </span>Mozambique,<span> </span><i>bolo polana</i><span> </span>is a cake prepared using powdered cashews and mashed potatoes as the main ingredients. This dessert is popular in South Africa.<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference">[8]</sup></p> <p>In<span> </span>Brazil, cashew fruit juice and the fruit pulp are used in the production of sweets, juice, alcoholic beverages, such as<span> </span><i>cachaça</i>, and as a flour, milk or cheese.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference">[9]</sup><span> </span>In<span> </span>Panama, the cashew fruit is cooked with water and sugar for a prolonged time to make a sweet, brown, paste-like dessert called<span> </span><i>dulce de marañón</i>, with<span> </span><i>marañón</i><span> </span>as a Spanish name for cashew.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (November 2018)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup></p> <p>The<span> </span>shell<span> </span>of the cashew nut contains oil compounds which may cause<span> </span>contact dermatitis<span> </span>similar in severity to that of poison ivy, primarily resulting from the<span> </span>phenolic lipids,<span> </span>anacardic acid, and<span> </span>cardanol.<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference">[10]</sup><span> </span>Due to the possible dermatitis, cashews are typically not sold in the shell to consumers.<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference">[11]</sup><span> </span>Readily and inexpensively extracted from the waste shells, cardanol is under research for its potential applications in<span> </span>nanomaterials<span> </span>and<span> </span>biotechnology.<sup id="cite_ref-hamad_12-0" class="reference">[12]</sup></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Production">Production</span></h2> <table class="wikitable"> <tbody> <tr> <th colspan="2">Cashew production (kernels), 2017</th> </tr> <tr> <td><center>Country</center></td> <td><center>Production<br /><small>(tonnes)</small></center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Flag_of_Vietnam.svg/23px-Flag_of_Vietnam.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Vietnam</center></td> <td><center>863,060</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg/23px-Flag_of_India.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" /> </span>India</center></td> <td><center>745,000</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Flag_of_C%C3%B4te_d%27Ivoire.svg/23px-Flag_of_C%C3%B4te_d%27Ivoire.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Côte d'Ivoire</center></td> <td><center>711,000</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg.png" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Philippines</center></td> <td><center>222,541</center></td> </tr> <tr> <th><center><b>World</b></center></th> <th><center><b>3,971,046</b></center></th> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"><small>Source:<span> </span>FAOSTAT<span> </span>of the<span> </span>United Nations<sup id="cite_ref-FAOSTAT_13-0" class="reference">[13]</sup></small></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>In 2017, global production of cashew nuts (as the<span> </span>kernel) was 3,971,046<span> </span>tonnes, led by<span> </span>Vietnam,<span> </span>India<span> </span>and<span> </span>Côte d'Ivoire<span> </span>with 22%, 19%, and 18% of the world's total respectively (table).<span> </span>Benin,<span> </span>Guinea-Bissau,<span> </span>Tanzania,<span> </span>Mozambique,<span> </span>Indonesia, and<span> </span>Brazilalso had significant production of cashew kernels.</p> <p>In 2014, rapid growth of cashew cultivation in<span> </span>Côte d'Ivoire<span> </span>made this country the top African exporter.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference">[14]</sup><span> </span>Fluctuations in world market prices, poor working conditions, and low pay for local harvesting have caused discontent in the cashew nut industry.<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference">[15]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference">[16]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference">[17]</sup></p> <p>The cashew tree is cultivated in the tropics between 25°N and 25°S, and is supremely adapted to hot lowland areas with a pronounced dry season, where the mango and tamarind trees also thrive.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference">[18]</sup><span> </span>The traditional cashew tree is tall (up to 14 m) and takes three years from planting before it starts production, and eight years before economic harvests can begin. More recent breeds, such as the dwarf cashew trees, are up to 6 m tall, and start producing after the first year, with economic yields after three years. The cashew nut yields for the traditional tree are about 0.25 metric tons per hectare, in contrast to over a ton per hectare for the dwarf variety. Grafting and other modern tree management technologies are used to further improve and sustain cashew nut yields in commercial orchards.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Nutrition">Nutrition</span></h2> <table class="infobox nowrap"><caption>Cashews, raw</caption> <tbody> <tr> <th colspan="2">Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)</th> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Energy</th> <td>553 kcal (2,310 kJ)</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Carbohydrates</b></div> </th> <td> <div>30.19 g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Starch</th> <td>23.49 g</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Sugars <div>lactose</div> </th> <td>5.91 g <div>0.00 g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Dietary fiber</th> <td>3.3 g</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Fat</b></div> </th> <td> <div>43.85 g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Saturated</th> <td>7.783 g</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Monounsaturated</th> <td>23.797 g</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Polyunsaturated</th> <td>7.845 g</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Protein</b></div> </th> <td> <div>18.22 g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Vitamins</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b><span><abbr title="Percentage of Daily Value"><b>%DV</b></abbr><sup>†</sup></span></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin A</th> <td>0 IU</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Thiamine<span> </span><span>(B1)</span></th> <td> <div>37%</div> 0.423 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Riboflavin<span> </span><span>(B2)</span></th> <td> <div>5%</div> 0.058 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Niacin<span> </span><span>(B3)</span></th> <td> <div>7%</div> 1.062 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Pantothenic acid<span> </span><span>(B5)</span></th> <td> <div>17%</div> 0.86 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin B<span>6</span></th> <td> <div>32%</div> 0.417 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Folate<span> </span><span>(B9)</span></th> <td> <div>6%</div> 25 μg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin B<span>12</span></th> <td> <div>0%</div> 0 μg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin C</th> <td> <div>1%</div> 0.5 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin D</th> <td> <div>0%</div> 0 μg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin E</th> <td> <div>6%</div> 0.90 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin K</th> <td> <div>32%</div> 34.1 μg</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Minerals</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b><span><abbr title="Percentage of Daily Value"><b>%DV</b></abbr><sup>†</sup></span></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Calcium</th> <td> <div>4%</div> 37 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Copper</th> <td> <div>110%</div> 2.2 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Iron</th> <td> <div>51%</div> 6.68 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Magnesium</th> <td> <div>82%</div> 292 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Manganese</th> <td> <div>79%</div> 1.66 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Phosphorus</th> <td> <div>85%</div> 593 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Potassium</th> <td> <div>14%</div> 660 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Selenium</th> <td> <div>28%</div> 19.9 μg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Sodium</th> <td> <div>1%</div> 12 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Zinc</th> <td> <div>61%</div> 5.78 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Other constituents</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Water</th> <td>5.20 g</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"><hr /> <div class="wrap">Link to USDA Database entry</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"> <div class="plainlist"> <ul> <li>Units</li> <li>μg =<span> </span>micrograms • mg =<span> </span>milligrams</li> <li>IU =<span> </span>International units</li> </ul> </div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" class="wrap"><sup>†</sup>Percentages are roughly approximated using<span> </span>US recommendations<span> </span>for adults.<span> </span><br /><span class="nowrap"><span>Source: USDA Nutrient Database</span></span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>In a 100-gram serving, raw cashews provide 553<span> </span>Calories, 67% of the<span> </span>Daily Value<span> </span>(DV) in total fats, 36% DV of<span> </span>protein, 13% DV of<span> </span>dietary fiber<span> </span>and 11% DV of<span> </span>carbohydrates(table).<sup id="cite_ref-USDA_19-0" class="reference">[19]</sup><span> </span>Cashews are rich sources (&gt; 19% DV) of<span> </span>dietary minerals, including particularly copper,<span> </span>manganese,<span> </span>phosphorus, and<span> </span>magnesium<span> </span>(79-110% DV), and of<span> </span>thiamin,<span> </span>vitamin B<sub>6</sub><span> </span>and<span> </span>vitamin K<span> </span>(32-37% DV) (table).<sup id="cite_ref-USDA_19-1" class="reference">[19]</sup><span> </span>Iron,<span> </span>potassium,<span> </span>zinc, and<span> </span>selenium<span> </span>are present in significant content (14-61% DV) (table).<sup id="cite_ref-USDA_19-2" class="reference">[19]</sup><span> </span>Cashews (100 grams, raw) contain 113 milligrams (1.74 gr) of<span> </span>beta-sitosterol.<sup id="cite_ref-USDA_19-3" class="reference">[19]</sup></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Allergy">Allergy</span></h3> <p>For some 6% of people, cashews can lead to complications or<span> </span>allergic reactions<sup id="cite_ref-allen_20-0" class="reference">[20]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-eu_21-0" class="reference">[21]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference">[22]</sup><span> </span>which may be life-threatening.<sup id="cite_ref-eu_21-1" class="reference">[21]</sup><span> </span>These allergies are triggered by the proteins found in tree nuts, and cooking often does not remove or change these proteins. Reactions to cashew and tree nuts can also occur as a consequence of hidden nut ingredients or traces of nuts that may inadvertently be introduced during food processing, handling, or manufacturing, particularly in people of European descent.<sup id="cite_ref-allen_20-1" class="reference">[20]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-eu_21-2" class="reference">[21]</sup></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Cashew_oil">Cashew oil</span></h2> <p>Cashew oil is a dark yellow oil for cooking or salad dressing pressed from cashew nuts (typically broken chunks created during processing). This may be produced from a single cold pressing.<sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference">[23]</sup></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Cashew_shell_oil">Cashew shell oil</span></h3> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also:<span> </span>Urushiol</div> <p>Cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) or cashew shell oil (CAS registry number<span> </span>8007-24-7) is a natural<span> </span>resin<span> </span>with a yellowish sheen found in the<span> </span>honeycomb structure<span> </span>of the cashew<span> </span>nutshell, and is a byproduct of processing cashew nuts. It is a raw material of multiple uses in developing drugs, antioxidants, fungicides, and<span> </span>biomaterials.<sup id="cite_ref-hamad_12-1" class="reference">[12]</sup><span> </span>It is used in tropical<span> </span>folk medicine<span> </span>and for antitermite<span> </span>treatment of timber.<sup id="cite_ref-clay_24-0" class="reference">[24]</sup><span> </span>Its composition varies depending on how it is processed.</p> <ul> <li>Cold,<span> </span>solvent-extracted<span> </span>CNSL is mostly composed of<span> </span>anacardic acids<span> </span>(70%),<sup id="cite_ref-cen_25-0" class="reference">[25]</sup><span> </span>cardol<span> </span>(18%) and<span> </span>cardanol<span> </span>(5%).<sup id="cite_ref-hamad_12-2" class="reference">[12]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-epa_26-0" class="reference">[26]</sup></li> <li>Heating CNSL<span> </span>decarboxylates<span> </span>the anacardic acids, producing a technical grade of CNSL that is rich in cardanol.<span> </span>Distillation<span> </span>of this material gives distilled, technical CNSL containing 78% cardanol and 8% cardol (cardol has one more<span> </span>hydroxyl<span> </span>group than cardanol).<sup id="cite_ref-epa_26-1" class="reference">[26]</sup><span> </span>This process also reduces the degree of thermal<span> </span>polymerization<span> </span>of the unsaturated alkyl-phenols present in CNSL.</li> <li>Anacardic acid is also used in the chemical industry for the production of cardanol, which is used for resins, coatings, and frictional materials.<sup id="cite_ref-cen_25-1" class="reference">[25]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-epa_26-2" class="reference">[26]</sup></li> </ul> <p>These substances are skin allergens, like the oils of poison ivy, and present danger during manual cashew processing.<sup id="cite_ref-clay_24-1" class="reference">[24]</sup></p> <p>This natural oil phenol has been found to have interesting chemical structural features which enable a range of chemical modifications to create a wide spectrum of biobased<span> </span>monomers<span> </span>capitalizing on the chemically versatile construct, containing three different<span> </span>functional groups: the<span> </span>aromatic ring, the<span> </span>hydroxyl group, and the<span> </span>double bonds<span> </span>in the flanking<span> </span>alkyl<span> </span>chain. These can be split into key groups, used as<span> </span>polyols, which have recently seen a dramatic increase in demand for their biobased origin and key chemical attributes such as high reactivity, range of functionalities, reduction in blowing agents, and naturally occurring fire retardant properties in the field of ridged polyurethanes aided by their inherent phenolic structure and larger number of reactive units per unit mass.<sup id="cite_ref-hamad_12-3" class="reference">[12]</sup></p> <p>CNSL may be used as a resin for<span> </span>carbon composite<span> </span>products.<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference">[27]</sup><span> </span>CNSL-based<span> </span>Novolac<span> </span>is another versatile industrial monomer deriving from cardanol typically used as a<span> </span>reticulating<span> </span>agent for<span> </span>epoxy<span> </span>matrices in<span> </span>composite<span> </span>applications providing good thermal and mechanical properties to the final composite material.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Cashew_apple">Cashew apple</span></h2> The cashew apple, also called cashew fruit, is the fleshy part of the cashew fruit attached to the cashew nut.<sup id="cite_ref-morton_1-5" class="reference">[1]</sup><span> </span>The top end of the cashew apple is attached to the stem that comes off the tree. The bottom end of the cashew apple attaches to the cashew nut, which is encased in a shell. In botanical terms, the cashew apple is an<span> </span>accessory fruit<span> </span>that grows on the cashew seed (which is the nut). <p>The cashew apple can be eaten fresh, cooked in curries, or fermented into vinegar, as well as an alcoholic drink. It is also used to make preserves, chutneys, and jams in some countries such as India and Brazil. In many countries, particularly in South America, the cashew apple is used to flavor drinks, both alcoholic and nonalcoholic.<sup id="cite_ref-morton_1-6" class="reference">[1]</sup></p> <p>Cashew nuts are more widely traded than cashew apples, because the apple, unlike the nut, is easily bruised and has very limited shelf life.<sup id="cite_ref-:0_28-0" class="reference">[28]</sup><span> </span>Cashew apple juice, however, may be used for manufacturing blended juices.<sup id="cite_ref-:0_28-1" class="reference">[28]</sup></p> <p>In cultures that consume cashew apples its<span> </span>astringency<span> </span>is sometimes removed by steaming the fruit for five minutes before washing it in cold water; alternatively, boiling the fruit in salt water for five minutes or soaking it in gelatin solution also reduces the astringency.<sup id="cite_ref-29" class="reference">[29]</sup></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Alcohol">Alcohol</span></h3> <p>In<span> </span>Goa, the cashew apple is mashed and the juice extracted and kept for fermentation for a few days. Fermented juice then undergoes a double distillation process. The resulting beverage is called<span> </span><i>feni</i><span> </span>or fenny.<span> </span><i>Feni</i><span> </span>is about 40–42% alcohol. The single-distilled version is called<span> </span><i>urrac</i>, which is about 15% alcohol.</p> <p>In the southern region of<span> </span>Mtwara,<span> </span>Tanzania, the cashew apple (<i>bibo</i><span> </span>in<span> </span>Swahili) is dried and saved. Later, it is reconstituted with water and fermented, then distilled to make a strong liquor often referred to by the generic name,<span> </span><i>gongo</i>.</p> <p>In Mozambique, cashew farmers commonly make a strong liquor from the cashew apple. It is known under various names in the local languages of Mozambique (muchekele in Emakua spoken in the North, xicadju in Changana spoken in the South). In contrast to the above-mentioned Feni of Goa, the cashew liquor made in Mozambique does not involve the extraction of the juice from the cashew apples. Following harvest and the removal of the nuts, the apples are spread on the ground under trees and courtyards and allowed to lose water and ferment. The shrivelled fruits are then used for distillation.</p> <p>According to one source,<sup id="cite_ref-Ref_to_Alcohol_in_Literature_on_Ceylon_30-0" class="reference">[30]</sup><span> </span>an alcohol had been distilled in the early 20th century from the juice of the fruit, and was manufactured in the<span> </span>West Indies.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Animal_feed">Animal feed</span></h2> <p>Discarded cashew nuts unfit for human consumption, alongside the residues of oil extraction from cashew kernels, can be used to feed livestock. Animals can also eat the leaves of cashew trees.</p> </div> <div></div> <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="1"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2" width="100%" valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing Instructions</strong></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Propagation:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">Seeds</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Pretreat:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">Seeds previously with sandpaper roughen then kept in cold water for 24 hours.</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Stratification:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">0</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">all year round</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing Depth:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">1-2 cm (Bulge upward)</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing Mix:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">Coir or sowing mix + sand or perlite</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Germination temperature:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">25-28 ° C</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Location:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">bright + keep constantly moist not wet</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Germination Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">2-8 weeks</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Watering:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">Water regularly during the growing season</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong> </strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><br /><span style="color: #008000;"><em>Copyright © 2012 Seeds Gallery - Saatgut Galerie - Galerija semena. </em><em>All Rights Reserved.</em><em></em></span></p> <div></div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </body> </html>
V 33 Y
Cashew Nut Seeds Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale)
Indian Dwarf Papaya Seeds - Paw Paw Miniature

Indian Dwarf Papaya Seeds -...

Price €3.00 (SKU: V 22 M
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Indian Dwarf Papaya Seeds - Paw Paw Miniature</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 10 or 100 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p class=""><strong>Tropical Dwarf Papaya is fast-growing papaya it only reaches 170 cm to 200 cm but bears fruits as large as 1 kg in 6-8 months from seed.</strong></p> <p>Papaya (Carica papaya L.) - Deliciously sweet with musky undertones and a soft, butter-like consistency, it is no wonder the papaya was reputably called the "fruit of the angels" by Christopher Columbus. Once considered quite exotic, they can now be found in markets throughout the year. Although there is a slight seasonal peak in early summer and fall, papaya trees produce fruit year-round.&nbsp;</p> <p>Papayas are fruits that remind us of the tropics, the regions of the world in which they are grown. Once considered an exotic fruit, papayas' rise in popularity has made them much more available. Papaya fruits are good sources of Vitamin A, B, and C.&nbsp;</p> <p>Papayas are spherical or pear-shaped fruits that can be as long as 20 inches. The ones commonly found in the market usually average about 7 inches and weigh about one pound. Their flesh is a rich orange color with either yellow or pink hues.&nbsp;</p> <p>Papaya has a wonderfully soft, butter-like consistency and a deliciously sweet, musky taste. Inside the inner cavity of the fruit are black, round seeds encased in a gelatinous-like substance. Papaya's seeds are edible, although their peppery flavor is somewhat bitter.&nbsp;</p> <p>The fruit, as well as the other parts of the papaya tree, contain papain, an enzyme that helps digest proteins. This enzyme is especially concentrated in the fruit when it is unripe. Papain is extracted to make digestive enzyme dietary supplements and is also used as an ingredient in some chewing gums.&nbsp;</p> <h2><a href="https://www.seeds-gallery.shop/en/home/indian-dwarf-papaya-seeds-paw-paw-miniature.html" target="_blank" title="How To Grow Papaya From Seed" rel="noreferrer noopener"><strong>How To Grow Papaya From Seed</strong></a></h2> <p>Select a sunny and sheltered place in your garden. That's right, in your garden. Don't start them in pots!</p> <p>Papayas don't transplant well. Anything that disturbs the roots of papayas really sets them back. They just hate it. The most foolproof way to grow papayas is to simply plant them where they are to live.</p> <p>Papaya trees are very, very hungry. That means they need very good soil, rich in organic matter and nutrients.</p> <p>If you don't have fabulous soil, make some. Dig a hole half a meter across and fill it with a mix of good compost and soil. Actually, make at least two or three such planting beds in different locations.</p> <p>Now sprinkle on some of your seeds. A couple of dozen per bed is a good amount. Cover the seeds lightly with more compost, and then mulch the patch well. The seeds usually take about a couple of weeks to germinate and may take longer.</p> <p>Soon you will notice that your seedlings are very different in size and vigor. That's why we planted so many. Start culling the weaker ones. Pull them out while still small, or cut bigger ones down to the ground. Only keep the very best.</p> <p>At this stage, you should keep about half a dozen plants. Papaya plants can be male, female, or bisexual, and you want to make sure that you have some females or bisexual plants amongst your seedlings. The male papayas don't bear fruit.</p> <p>Papayas start flowering when they are about one meter tall. The male's flower first. Male flowers have long, thin stalks with several small blooms. Female flowers are usually single blooms, bigger, and very close to the trunk.&nbsp;</p> <p>Cull most of the male plants. You only need one male for every ten to fifteen female plants to ensure good pollination.</p> <p>And that's it. You should end up with one very strong and healthy female plant per bed. (And a male plant somewhere...) If the weather is warm enough, and if you are growing your papayas in full sun and in good soil, then you could be picking the first ripe fruit within 10 months.</p> <h3>How much water?</h3> <p>Papayas have large soft leaves. They evaporate a lot of water in warm weather, so they need a lot of water. But unfortunately, papayas are very susceptible to root rot, especially in cool weather. Overwatering is the most common reason for problems when growing papayas.</p> <p>It depends on the temperature and on the overall health and vigor of the plant. A healthier plant will cope better, but in general, you should be careful not to overwater during periods of cool weather.</p> <h3>Growing Papaya In Cooler Climates</h3> <p>If you get at least long hot summers you could grow papaya just as an ornamental plant. In this case, you would start them in a pot indoors to gain extra time. Plant them out against a sun-facing wall and enjoy the tropical look. However, you won't be able to keep your papaya alive long enough to get fruit.</p> <p>The only other option is growing papaya in a huge pot, and to keep the pot in a heated greenhouse in winter. You may also grow papaya as an annual decorative plant.</p> <div> <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="1"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2" width="100%" valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing Instructions</strong></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Propagation:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">Seeds / Cuttings</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Pretreat:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">0</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Stratification:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">0</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">all year round</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing Depth:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">0.5 cm</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing Mix:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">Coir or sowing mix + sand or perlite</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Germination temperature:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">about 25-28 ° C</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Location:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">bright + keep constantly moist not wet</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Germination Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">2-4 Weeks</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Watering:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color: #008000;">regular watering during the growth period + dry between waterings</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>&nbsp;</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><br><span style="color: #008000;"><em>Copyright © 2012 Seeds Gallery - Saatgut Galerie - Galerija semena. All Rights Reserved.</em></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div>
V 22 M
Indian Dwarf Papaya Seeds - Paw Paw Miniature

Variety from India

Ayurveda Plant
Chaksu, Jasmejaaz Seeds...

Chaksu, Jasmejaaz Seeds...

Price €1.95 (SKU: P 170 CA
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Chaksu, Jasmejaaz Seeds (Cassia absus)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 10 seeds.&nbsp;</strong></span></h2> Annual herb, to 60 cm, glandular-hairy. Leaves: petiole to 4 cm, without a gland; leaves with 2 pairs of opposite leaflets with a gland on the rhachis between each pair. Inflorescences terminal. Petals 5-6 mm, yellow, orange, salmon, or pinkish-red with reddish-brown veins. Stamens 5, subequal; filaments straight. Pod 3-6 cm, flat.<br><br>Seeds contain alkaloids that have powerful actions on the nervous and vascular systems and are used accordingly for a variety of purposes in folk medicine.<br><br>In disturbed grassland or open woodland, also on roadsides, riverine alluvium, and formerly cultivated areas.<br><br>Widespread in the tropics and subtropics.<br><br>Health Benefits of Cassia Absus Seed<br><br>Due to the sudden increase in the number of chaksu seed buyers, the commercial cultivation of this medicinal plant is seriously being considered by farmers and those involved in the production of ayurvedic medicines. This is an Indian medicinal herb belonging to the Caesalpiniaceae family of plants. Also known as Cassia Absus, Chaksu seeds have many medicinal properties making them one of the most sought-after ayurvedic herbs that can be used in the form of decoction, powder, and even juice.<br><br>Chaksu Seeds for Lowering Blood Pressure<br><br>What makes these seeds really popular, is their ability to lower blood pressure. Acting as a hypotensive agent, this humble seed works wonders for those looking to control their BP naturally. It is a strong anti-bacterial agent and works as an astringent. It is also full of many phytochemicals such as alkaloids, essential fatty acids, and sterols. It is available in the form of seeds and Chaksu oil.<br><br>Medicinal Properties of Chaksu Seeds<br><br>These seeds are highly effective in treating common coughs.<br>You can get rid of ringworms by mixing Jasmezaaj seed paste in oil and applying it directly over the affected area.<br>The same oil can be used for curing many skin diseases.<br>It is an effective home remedy for treating urinary bladder problems.<br>Suffering from purulent conjunctivitis? Use Chakus seeds to cure it fast.<br>Treating wounds and sores with Chaksu seeds is very common in various parts of India.<br>Diuretic formulations are prepared by using these wonderful herbal plant seeds.<br>Eye lotions are prepared using Chaksu seeds.<br>It is an effective herbal treatment for eye ailments such as trachoma, ulcers, cataract, and polyps.<br>Pus formation and watering of eyes and many other eye infections are treated with Chaksu seed-based medicines.<br><br>Chaksu Synonyms<br><br>There are various other popular names of Chaksu in different parts of India. Let us take a look at some of it its synonyms<br><br>In Hindi Speaking Areas, it is known as Chaaksu.<br>In English, it is known as Chaksu seeds and Jasmejaaz.<br>It is called Chaksu in Sanskrit as well and also as Chakushya. In fact, the Hindi name has been derived from the original Sanskrit word.<br>In Tamil, it is popularly known as “Karun kanami”.<br>In Telugu, they are known as Chanupala vittulu.<br>In Bengali, it is called Chaakut.<br>Gujrati people call it Chimeru.<br>In most parts of Kerala and the surrounding Malayalam-speaking areas, it is known as Karinkolla.<br><br>No matter what you prefer to call these seeds, you’ll be immensely benefited by the herbal properties of this plant, its seeds and of course medicines prepared with it.<script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
P 170 CA
Chaksu, Jasmejaaz Seeds (Cassia absus)

This plant is resistant to winter and frost.
Giant Bamboo seeds...

Giant Bamboo seeds...

Price €2.50 (SKU: B 5 DB
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2 id="short_description_content" class="rte align_justify"><strong>Giant Bamboo seeds (Dendrocalamus barbatus)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 5 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>Extremely rare and very large bamboo, originating from Asia and China, grows up to 15 meters in height. Clumping bamboo (non-invasive) grows to a diameter of 10 cm, forming attractive clusters with lanceolate leaves. The shoots initially turn orange, then turn green in youth, and finally develop a shiny gray coat as they age.</p> <p>The culms of this large bamboo are used for construction, and its shoots are one of the main food species in China and Thailand.</p> <p>Resistant to temperatures of around -4 ºC (25 ºF), sometimes lower temperatures, but the key is to keep the soil dry during frost.</p> <p>Bamboo seeds are not always available due to the shortage of most species, this is because bamboo rarely blooms, sometimes only every 30 to even 100 years.</p> </body> </html>
B 5 DB
Giant Bamboo seeds (Dendrocalamus barbatus)

Variety from America

White Skin - White Flesh KENNEBEC Potato Seeds  - 4

White Skin - White Flesh...

Price €1.95 (SKU: P 247 WK
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>White Skin - White Flesh KENNEBEC Potato Seeds</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color:#ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 10 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>These white-skinned and white flesh tubers make excellent table potatoes. The fairly firm texture when boiled. They are highly recommended for fries and chips. Plants are compact and erect with pointed smooth leaves and; numerous big white flowers with slight reddish-purple tinge on backs.</p> <p>Potatoes can be grown from true seeds just as easily and reliably as tomatoes, peppers or eggplants. True potato seed is a new development offering the advantages of, lower cost than mini-tubers, completely disease-free, and always available at the right planting time for gardeners in any region. This is the new wave in potato culture.</p> <p>Start indoors in seedling trays. Fill each cell to 1cm (1/2") from the top with sterilized seed starting mix. Moisten with water and place one seed on the top of the soil per cell. Cover with vermiculite and water in. Note: Potato seeds require light to germinate, so do not bury.  Optimal soil temperature for germination: 15-27°C (65-80°F). Seeds should germinate in 6-10 days.</p> <p><strong>Starting</strong><br />Keep the soil evenly moist during germination, but allow free drainage so that excess water does not collect. Water before mid-day to allow foliage to dry completely by nightfall. Potato seedlings <span>tend to stay prostrate immediately after emergence if they have 13 or more hours of daylight. As a somewhat longer stem is desired to ease transplanting, keep seedlings in about 12-hour light per day. During the last week expose seedlings to full sunlight to strengthen the stem. At optimal temperature, transplants will be ready 4 to 6 weeks after seeding.</span></p> <p><span>If field conditions are very different from indoor conditions, allow one week of hardening off. Water the plugs heavily the day before and day of the transplant, and transplant into moist soil.</span></p> <p><strong>Growing</strong><br />Ideal pH: 5.0-6.0. Plant seedlings so that only the crown of its top, 2-5cm (1-2“) is above soil level, burying the whole plug and a good part of the stem of the seedling. Seedlings cannot be completely buried, the growing point needs to stay above ground. Space seedlings 10-25cm (4-10") apart in rows 75cm (30") apart. Wider spacing produces fewer, but larger tubers. Keep the area well-watered for several weeks after transplant.</p> <p><strong>Hilling<br /></strong><span>When seedlings reach 10-15cm  (4-6") in height, they should be hilled, probably three weeks after transplanting. This operation takes soil from the centre of the row, and covers the seedlings up to half of their height, creating a small hill. It is best to work from the centre of the furrow towards the plants. Do not cut too deep into the soil near the plant to avoid root damage. Just before hilling, fertilizer can be applied near the base of the seedlings, and this will be covered when hilling.</span></p> <p>A second hilling and side dressing of balanced organic fertilizer should follow 3-4 weeks after the first, again depositing soil up to half the height of the plants. Again, increase the depth of the furrow in its centre and bring this soil on top of the small hill created in the first hilling operation.</p> <p><strong>Harvest</strong></p> <p><span>In the garden, potatoes can be harvested without destroying the plant if only a few potatoes are needed. Carefully scrape soil near the base of the stem until the skin of a potato is found, and pull it from the stolon. Consume it that day for a tasty and nutritious meal. </span>If potatoes need to be stored for some time, remove the foliage 3 weeks before harvest. This "sets" (hardens) the skin, and it will store better as the thicker skin will reduce water loss from the tubers. Keep them dark up to 2 to 3 months at high humidity before eating.</p> <p><strong>Seed Info</strong><br />In optimal conditions, at least 75% of the seeds will germinate. Usual seed life: 3 years. Per 100′ row: 200 seeds, per acre: 8.8M seeds.</p> <p><strong>Diseases &amp; Pests</strong><br />Protect from cabbage moths and other insect pests with floating row cover. Prevent disease with a strict 4-year crop rotation, avoiding planting Brassicas in the same spot more than once every four years.</p> <p><strong>Companion Planting</strong><br />A worthy companion for beets, Brassicas, cucumbers, and onions. Avoid planting near peppers, pole beans, strawberries, and tomatoes.</p>
P 247 WK
White Skin - White Flesh KENNEBEC Potato Seeds  - 4

Variety from Serbia

This plant is resistant to winter and frost.
Sweet Cherry Seeds (Prunus avium) 1.45 - 5

Sweet Cherry Seeds (Prunus...

Price €1.85 (SKU: V 98
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Sweet Cherry Seeds (Prunus avium)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 10 seeds.</strong></span><span><strong><span style="color: #ff0000;"><br></span></strong></span></h2> <p>Prunus avium, commonly called wild cherry, sweet cherry, bird cherry, or gean, is a species of cherry native to Europe, western Turkey, northwestern Africa, and western Asia, from the British Isles south to Morocco and Tunisia, north to the Trondheimsfjord region in Norway and east to the Caucasus and northern Iran, with a small disjunct population in the western Himalaya.[3][4] This species, in the rose family (Rosaceae), has a diploid set of sixteen chromosomes (2n=16).[5] All parts of the plant except for the ripe fruit are slightly toxic, containing cyanogenic glycosides.</p> <p><strong>Nomenclature</strong></p> <p>The early history of its classification is somewhat confused. In the first edition of Species Plantarum (1753), Linnaeus treated it as only a variety, Prunus cerasus var. avium, citing Gaspard Bauhin's Pinax theatri botanici (1596) as a synonym;[clarification needed] his description, Cerasus racemosa hortensis ("Cherry with racemes, of gardens")[clarification needed] shows it was described from a cultivated plant.[6] Linnaeus then changed from a variety to a species Prunus avium in the second edition of his Flora Suecica in 1755.[7]</p> <p>Sweet cherry was known historically as Gean or Mazzard (also 'massard'), until recently, both were largely obsolete names in modern English.</p> <p>The name "wild cherry" is also commonly applied to other species of Prunus growing in their native habitats, particularly to the North American species Prunus serotina.</p> <p>Prunus avium means "bird cherry" in the Latin language.[4] In English "bird cherry" often refers to Prunus padus.</p> <p><strong>Mazzard</strong></p> <p>More recently[when?] 'Mazzard' has been used to refer to a selected self-fertile cultivar that comes true from seed, and which is used as a seedling rootstock for fruiting cultivars.[9][10] This term is still used particularly for the varieties of P. avium grown in North Devon and cultivated there, particularly in the orchards at Landkey.</p> <p><strong>Description and ecology</strong></p> <p>Prunus avium is a deciduous tree growing to 15–32 m (50-100 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1.5 m (5 ft) in diameter. Young trees show strong apical dominance with a straight trunk and symmetrical conical crown, becoming rounded to irregular on old trees. The bark is smooth purplish-brown with prominent horizontal grey-brown lenticels on young trees, becoming thick dark blackish-brown and fissured on old trees. The leaves are alternate, simple ovoid-acute, 7–14 cm (3–6 in) long and 4–7 cm (2–3 in) broad, glabrous matt or sub-shiny green above, variably finely downy beneath, with a serrated margin and an acuminate tip, with a green or reddish petiole 2–3.5 cm (0.8-1.4 in) long bearing two to five small red glands. The tip of each serrated edge of the leaves also bear small red glands.[11] In autumn, the leaves turn orange, pink or red before falling. The flowers are produced in early spring at the same time as the new leaves, borne in corymbs of two to six together, each flower pendent on a 2–5 cm (0.8-2 in) peduncle, 2.5–3.5 cm (1-1.4 in) in diameter, with five pure white petals, yellowish stamens, and a superior ovary; they are hermaphroditic, and pollinated by bees. The fruit is a drupe 1–2 cm (0.4-0.8 in) in diameter (larger in some cultivated selections), bright red to dark purple when mature in midsummer, edible, variably sweet to somewhat astringent and bitter to eat fresh. Each fruit contains a single hard-shelled stone 8–12 mm long, 7–10 mm wide and 6–8 mm thick, grooved along the flattest edge; the seed (kernel) inside the stone is 6–8 mm long.</p> <p>The fruit are readily eaten by numerous kinds of birds and mammals, which digest the fruit flesh and disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some rodents, and a few birds (notably the Hawfinch), also crack open the stones to eat the kernel inside. All parts of the plant except for the ripe fruit are slightly toxic, containing cyanogenic glycosides.</p> <p>See also List of Lepidoptera that feed on Prunus</p> <p>The leaves provide food for some animals, including Lepidoptera such as the case-bearer moth Coleophora anatipennella.</p> <p>The tree exudes a gum from wounds in the bark, by which it seals the wounds to exclude insects and fungal infections.</p> <p><strong>Fruit</strong></p> <p>Some eighteenth and nineteenth century botanical authors[who?] assumed a western Asia origin for the species based on the writings of Pliny; however, archaeological finds of seeds from prehistoric Europe contradict this view. Wild cherries have been an item of human food for several thousands of years. The stones have been found in deposits at Bronze Age settlements throughout Europe, including in Britain.[9] In one dated example, wild cherry macrofossils were found in a core sample from the detritus beneath a dwelling at an Early and Middle Bronze Age pile-dwelling site on and in the shore of a former lake at Desenzano del Garda or Lonato, near the southern shore of Lake Garda, Italy. The date is estimated at Early Bronze Age IA, carbon dated there to 2077 BC plus or minus 10 years. The natural forest was largely cleared at that time.[16]</p> <p>By 800 BC, cherries were being actively cultivated in Asia Minor, and soon after in Greece.[9]</p> <p>As the main ancestor of the cultivated cherry, the sweet cherry is one of the two cherry species which supply most of the world's commercial cultivars of edible cherry (the other is the sour cherry Prunus cerasus, mainly used for cooking; a few other species have had a very small input).[9] Various cherry cultivars are now grown worldwide wherever the climate is suitable; the number of cultivars is now very large.[9] The species has also escaped from cultivation and become naturalised in some temperate regions, including southwestern Canada, Japan, New Zealand, and the northeast and northwest of the United States.</p> <p><strong>Ornamental</strong></p> <p>It is often cultivated as a flowering tree. Because of the size of the tree, it is often used in parkland, and less often as a street or garden tree. The double-flowered form, 'Plena', is commonly found, rather than the wild single-flowered forms.</p> <p>Two interspecific hybrids, P. x schmittii (P. avium x P. canescens) and P. x fontenesiana (P. avium x P. mahaleb) are also grown as ornamental trees.</p> <p><strong>Timber</strong></p> <p>The hard, reddish-brown wood (cherry wood) is valued as a hardwood for woodturning, and making cabinets and musical instruments.[15] Cherry wood is also used for smoking foods, particularly meats, in North America, as it lends a distinct and pleasant flavor to the product.[citation needed]</p> <p><strong>Other uses</strong></p> <p>The gum from bark wounds is aromatic and can be chewed as a substitute for chewing gum.</p> <p>Medicine can be prepared from the stalks of the drupes that is astringent, antitussive, and diuretic.</p> <p>A green dye can also be prepared from the plant.</p> <p><strong>Contribution to other species</strong></p> <p>Prunus avium is thought to be one of the parent species of Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) by way of ancient crosses between it and Prunus fruticosa (dwarf cherry) in the areas where the two species overlap. All three species can breed with each other. Prunus cerasus is now a species in its own right having developed beyond a hybrid and stabilised.</p><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
V 98 (2g)
Sweet Cherry Seeds (Prunus avium) 1.45 - 5
Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)

Bourbon Vanilla Seeds...

Price €3.50 (SKU: MHS 104
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 50 or 100 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><span>Vanilla planifolia is a species of vanilla orchid. It is native to Mexico and Central America, and is one of the primary sources for vanilla flavouring, due to its high vanillin content. Common names are flat-leaved vanilla, Tahitian vanilla,[citation needed] and West Indian vanilla (also used for the Pompona vanilla, V. pompona). Often, it is simply referred to as "the vanilla". It was first scientifically named in 1808.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla planifolia is found in Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and northeastern South America. It prefers hot, wet, tropical climates. </span></p> <p><span>It is cultivated and harvested primarily in Veracruz, Mexico and in Madagascar.</span></p> <p><span>Like all members of the genus Vanilla, V. planifolia is a vine. It uses its fleshy roots to support itself as it grows.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Flowers</span></strong></p> <p><span>Flowers are greenish-yellow, with a diameter of 5 cm (2 in). They last only a day, and must be pollinated manually, during the morning, if fruit is desired. The plants are self-fertile, and pollination simply requires a transfer of the pollen from the anther to the stigma. If pollination does not occur, the flower is dropped the next day. In the wild, there is less than 1% chance that the flowers will be pollinated, so in order to receive a steady flow of fruit, the flowers must be hand-pollinated when grown on farms.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Fruit</span></strong></p> <p><span>Fruit is produced only on mature plants, which are generally over 3 m (10 ft) long. The fruits are 15-23 cm (6-9 in) long pods (often incorrectly called beans). Outwardly they resemble small bananas. They mature after about five months, at which point they are harvested and cured. Curing ferments and dries the pods while minimizing the loss of essential oils. Vanilla extract is obtained from this portion of the plant.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia). The word vanilla, derived from vainilla, the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina (vaina itself meaning sheath or pod), is translated simply as "little pod". Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people cultivated the vine of the vanilla orchid, called tlilxochitl by the Aztecs. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s.</span></p> <p><span>Pollination is required to set the vanilla fruit from which the flavoring is derived. In 1837, Belgian botanist Charles François Antoine Morren discovered this fact and pioneered a method of artificially pollinating the plant.[3] The method proved financially unworkable and was not deployed commercially.[4] In 1841, Edmond Albius, a slave who lived on the French island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean, discovered at the age of 12 that the plant could be hand-pollinated. Hand-pollination allowed global cultivation of the plant.</span></p> <p><span>Three major species of vanilla currently are grown globally, all of which derive from a species originally found in Mesoamerica, including parts of modern-day Mexico.[6] They are V. planifolia (syn. V. fragrans), grown on Madagascar, Réunion, and other tropical areas along the Indian Ocean; V. tahitensis, grown in the South Pacific; and V. pompona, found in the West Indies, and Central and South America.[7] The majority of the world's vanilla is the V. planifolia species, more commonly known as Bourbon vanilla (after the former name of Réunion, Île Bourbon) or Madagascar vanilla, which is produced in Madagascar and neighboring islands in the southwestern Indian Ocean, and in Indonesia.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla is the second-most expensive spice after saffron.  Despite the expense, vanilla is highly valued for its flavor.  As a result, vanilla is widely used in both commercial and domestic baking, perfume manufacture, and aromatherapy.</span></p> <p><strong><span>History</span></strong></p> <p><span>According to popular belief, the Totonac people, who inhabit the east coast of Mexico in the present-day state of Veracruz, were the first to cultivate vanilla. According to Totonac mythology, the tropical orchid was born when Princess Xanat, forbidden by her father from marrying a mortal, fled to the forest with her lover. The lovers were captured and beheaded. Where their blood touched the ground, the vine of the tropical orchid grew.[4] In the 15th century, Aztecs invading from the central highlands of Mexico conquered the Totonacs, and soon developed a taste for the vanilla pods. They named the fruit tlilxochitl, or "black flower", after the matured fruit, which shrivels and turns black shortly after it is picked. Subjugated by the Aztecs, the Totonacs paid tribute by sending vanilla fruit to the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan.</span></p> <p><span>Until the mid-19th century, Mexico was the chief producer of vanilla. In 1819, French entrepreneurs shipped vanilla fruits to the islands of Réunion and Mauritius in hopes of producing vanilla there. After Edmond Albius discovered how to pollinate the flowers quickly by hand, the pods began to thrive. Soon, the tropical orchids were sent from Réunion to the Comoros Islands, Seychelles, and Madagascar, along with instructions for pollinating them. By 1898, Madagascar, Réunion, and the Comoros Islands produced 200 metric tons of vanilla beans, about 80% of world production. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, Indonesia is currently responsible for the vast majority of the world's Bourbon vanilla production and 58% of the world total vanilla fruit production.</span></p> <p><span>The market price of vanilla rose dramatically in the late 1970s after a tropical cyclone ravaged key croplands. Prices remained high through the early 1980s despite the introduction of Indonesian vanilla. In the mid-1980s, the cartel that had controlled vanilla prices and distribution since its creation in 1930 disbanded. Prices dropped 70% over the next few years, to nearly US$20 per kilogram; prices rose sharply again after tropical cyclone Hudah struck Madagascar in April 2000. The cyclone, political instability, and poor weather in the third year drove vanilla prices to an astonishing US$500/kg in 2004, bringing new countries into the vanilla industry. A good crop, coupled with decreased demand caused by the production of imitation vanilla, pushed the market price down to the $40/kg range in the middle of 2005. By 2010, prices were down to $20/kg. Cyclone Enawo caused in similar spike to $500/kg in 2017.</span></p> <p><span>Madagascar (especially the fertile Sava region) accounts for much of the global production of vanilla. Mexico, once the leading producer of natural vanilla with an annual yield of 500 tons of cured beans, produced only 10 tons in 2006. An estimated 95% of "vanilla" products are artificially flavored with vanillin derived from lignin instead of vanilla fruits.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Etymology</span></strong></p> <p><span>Vanilla was completely unknown in the Old World before Cortés. Spanish explorers arriving on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in the early 16th century gave vanilla its current name. Spanish and Portuguese sailors and explorers brought vanilla into Africa and Asia later that century. They called it vainilla, or "little pod". The word vanilla entered the English language in 1754, when the botanist Philip Miller wrote about the genus in his Gardener’s Dictionary. Vainilla is from the diminutive of vaina, from the Latin vagina (sheath) to describe the shape of the pods.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Vanilla orchid</span></strong></p> <p><span>The main species harvested for vanilla is V. planifolia. Although it is native to Mexico, it is now widely grown throughout the tropics. Indonesia and Madagascar are the world's largest producers. Additional sources include V. pompona and V. tahitiensis (grown in Niue and Tahiti), although the vanillin content of these species is much less than V. planifolia.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla grows as a vine, climbing up an existing tree (also called a tutor), pole, or other support. It can be grown in a wood (on trees), in a plantation (on trees or poles), or in a "shader", in increasing orders of productivity. Its growth environment is referred to as its terroir, and includes not only the adjacent plants, but also the climate, geography, and local geology. Left alone, it will grow as high as possible on the support, with few flowers. Every year, growers fold the higher parts of the plant downward so the plant stays at heights accessible by a standing human. This also greatly stimulates flowering.</span></p> <p><span>The distinctively flavored compounds are found in the fruit, which results from the pollination of the flower. These seed pods are roughly a third of an inch by six inches, and brownish red to black when ripe. Inside of these pods is an oily liquid full of tiny seeds.[22] One flower produces one fruit. V. planifolia flowers are hermaphroditic: they carry both male (anther) and female (stigma) organs. However, self-pollination is blocked by a membrane which separates those organs. The flowers can be naturally pollinated by bees of genus Melipona (abeja de monte or mountain bee), by bee genus Eulaema, or by hummingbirds. The Melipona bee provided Mexico with a 300-year-long advantage on vanilla production from the time it was first discovered by Europeans. The first vanilla orchid to flower in Europe was in the London collection of the Honourable Charles Greville in 1806. Cuttings from that plant went to Netherlands and Paris, from which the French first transplanted the vines to their overseas colonies. The vines grew, but would not fruit outside Mexico. Growers tried to bring this bee into other growing locales, to no avail. The only way to produce fruits without the bees is artificial pollination. Today, even in Mexico, hand pollination is used extensively.</span></p> <p><span>In 1836, botanist Charles François Antoine Morren was drinking coffee on a patio in Papantla (in Veracruz, Mexico) and noticed black bees flying around the vanilla flowers next to his table. He watched their actions closely as they would land and work their way under a flap inside the flower, transferring pollen in the process. Within hours, the flowers closed and several days later, Morren noticed vanilla pods beginning to form. Morren immediately began experimenting with hand pollination. A few years later in 1841, a simple and efficient artificial hand-pollination method was developed by a 12-year-old slave named Edmond Albius on Réunion, a method still used today. Using a beveled sliver of bamboo, an agricultural worker lifts the membrane separating the anther and the stigma, then, using the thumb, transfers the pollinia from the anther to the stigma. The flower, self-pollinated, will then produce a fruit. The vanilla flower lasts about one day, sometimes less, so growers have to inspect their plantations every day for open flowers, a labor-intensive task.</span></p> <p><span>The fruit, a seed capsule, if left on the plant, ripens and opens at the end; as it dries, the phenolic compounds crystallize, giving the fruits a diamond-dusted appearance, which the French call givre (hoarfrost). It then releases the distinctive vanilla smell. The fruit contains tiny, black seeds. In dishes prepared with whole natural vanilla, these seeds are recognizable as black specks. Both the pod and the seeds are used in cooking.</span></p> <p><span>Like other orchids' seeds, vanilla seeds will not germinate without the presence of certain mycorrhizal fungi. Instead, growers reproduce the plant by cutting: they remove sections of the vine with six or more leaf nodes, a root opposite each leaf. The two lower leaves are removed, and this area is buried in loose soil at the base of a support. The remaining upper roots cling to the support, and often grow down into the soil. Growth is rapid under good conditions.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Cultivars</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span>Bourbon vanilla</span></strong><span> or Bourbon-Madagascar vanilla, produced from V. planifolia plants introduced from the Americas, is from Indian Ocean islands such as Madagascar, the Comoros, and Réunion, formerly the Île Bourbon. It is also used to describe the distinctive vanilla flavor derived from V. planifolia grown successfully in tropical countries such as India.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Mexican vanilla</span></strong><span>, made from the native V. planifolia,[26] is produced in much less quantity and marketed as the vanilla from the land of its origin. Vanilla sold in tourist markets around Mexico is sometimes not actual vanilla extract, but is mixed with an extract of the tonka bean, which contains the toxin coumarin. Tonka bean extract smells and tastes like vanilla, but coumarin has been shown to cause liver damage in lab animals and has been banned in food in the US by the Food and Drug Administration since 1954.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Tahitian vanilla</span></strong><span> is from French Polynesia, made with V. tahitiensis. Genetic analysis shows this species is possibly a cultivar from a hybrid of V. planifolia and V. odorata. The species was introduced by French Admiral François Alphonse Hamelin to French Polynesia from the Philippines, where it was introduced from Guatemala by the Manila Galleon trade.</span></p> <p><strong><span>West Indian vanilla</span></strong><span> is made from V. pompona grown in the Caribbean and Central and South America.</span></p> <p><span>The term French vanilla is often used to designate particular preparations with a strong vanilla aroma, containing vanilla grains and sometimes also containing eggs (especially egg yolks). The appellation originates from the French style of making vanilla ice cream with a custard base, using vanilla pods, cream, and egg yolks. Inclusion of vanilla varietals from any of the former French dependencies or overseas France may be a part of the flavoring. Alternatively, French vanilla is taken to refer to a vanilla-custard flavor.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Chemistry</span></strong></p> <p><span>Vanilla essence occurs in two forms. Real seedpod extract is a complex mixture of several hundred different compounds, including vanillin, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, furfural, hexanoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, eugenol, methyl cinnamate, and isobutyric acid.[citation needed] Synthetic essence consists of a solution of synthetic vanillin in ethanol. The chemical compound vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is a major contributor to the characteristic flavor and aroma of real vanilla and is the main flavor component of cured vanilla beans.[30] Vanillin was first isolated from vanilla pods by Gobley in 1858. By 1874, it had been obtained from glycosides of pine tree sap, temporarily causing a depression in the natural vanilla industry. Vanillin can be easily synthesized from various raw materials, but the majority of food-grade (&gt; 99% pure) vanillin is made from guaiacol.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Pollination</span></strong></p> <p><span>Flowering normally occurs every spring, and without pollination, the blossom wilts and falls, and no vanilla bean can grow. Each flower must be hand-pollinated within 12 hours of opening. In the wild, very few natural pollinators exist, with most pollination thought to be carried out by the shiny green Euglossa viridissima, some Eulaema spp. and other species of the euglossine or orchid bees, Euglossini, though direct evidence is lacking. Closely related Vanilla species are known to be pollinated by the euglossine bees.[40] The previously suggested pollination by stingless bees of the genus Melipona is thought to be improbable, as they are too small to be effective and have never been observed carrying Vanilla pollen or pollinating other orchids, though they do visit the flowers.[41] These pollinators do not exist outside the orchid's home range, and even within that range, vanilla orchids have only a 1% chance of successful pollination. As a result, all vanilla grown today is pollinated by hand. A small splinter of wood or a grass stem is used to lift the rostellum or move the flap upward, so the overhanging anther can be pressed against the stigma and self-pollinate the vine. Generally, one flower per raceme opens per day, so the raceme may be in flower for over 20 days. A healthy vine should produce about 50 to 100 beans per year, but growers are careful to pollinate only five or six flowers from the 20 on each raceme. The first flowers that open per vine should be pollinated, so the beans are similar in age. These agronomic practices facilitate harvest and increases bean quality. The fruits require five to six weeks to develop, but around six months to mature. Over-pollination results in diseases and inferior bean quality.[35] A vine remains productive between 12 and 14 years.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Harvest</span></strong></p> <p><span>Harvesting vanilla fruits is as labor-intensive as pollinating the blossoms. Immature, dark green pods are not harvested. Pale yellow discoloration that commences at the distal end of the fruits is not a good indication of the maturity of pods. Each fruit ripens at its own time, requiring a daily harvest. "Current methods for determining the maturity of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) beans are unreliable. Yellowing at the blossom end, the current index, occurs before beans accumulate maximum glucovanillin concentrations. Beans left on the vine until they turn brown have higher glucovanillin concentrations but may split and have low quality. Judging bean maturity is difficult as they reach full size soon after pollination. Glucovanillin accumulates from 20 weeks, maximum about 40 weeks after pollination. Mature green beans have 20% dry matter but less than 2% glucovanillin."[46] The accumulation of dry matter and glucovanillin are highly correlated.To ensure the finest flavor from every fruit, each individual pod must be picked by hand just as it begins to split on the end. Overmatured fruits are likely to split, causing a reduction in market value. Its commercial value is fixed based on the length and appearance of the pod.</span></p> <p><span>If the fruit is more than 15 cm (5.9 in) in length, it is categorized as first-quality. The largest fruits greater than 16 cm and up to as much as 21 cm are usually reserved for the gourmet vanilla market, for sale to top chefs and restaurants. If the fruits are between 10 and 15 cm long, pods are under the second-quality category, and fruits less than 10 cm in length are under the third-quality category. Each fruit contains thousands of tiny black vanilla seeds. Vanilla fruit yield depends on the care and management given to the hanging and fruiting vines. Any practice directed to stimulate aerial root production has a direct effect on vine productivity. A five-year-old vine can produce between 1.5 and 3 kg (3.3 and 6.6 lb) pods, and this production can increase up to 6 kg (13 lb) after a few years. The harvested green fruit can be commercialized as such or cured to get a better market price.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Culinary uses</span></strong></p> <p><span>The four main commercial preparations of natural vanilla are:</span></p> <p><span>Whole pod</span></p> <p><span>Powder (ground pods, kept pure or blended with sugar, starch, or other ingredients)</span></p> <p><span>Extract (in alcoholic or occasionally glycerol solution; both pure and imitation forms of vanilla contain at least 35% alcohol)</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla sugar, a packaged mix of sugar and vanilla extract</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla flavoring in food may be achieved by adding vanilla extract or by cooking vanilla pods in the liquid preparation. A stronger aroma may be attained if the pods are split in two, exposing more of a pod's surface area to the liquid. In this case, the pods' seeds are mixed into the preparation. Natural vanilla gives a brown or yellow color to preparations, depending on the concentration. Good-quality vanilla has a strong, aromatic flavor, but food with small amounts of low-quality vanilla or artificial vanilla-like flavorings are far more common, since true vanilla is much more expensive.</span></p> <p><span>Regarded as the world's most popular aroma and flavor, vanilla is a widely used aroma and flavor compound for foods, beverages and cosmetics, as indicated by its popularity as an ice cream flavor.[64] Although vanilla is a prized flavoring agent on its own, it is also used to enhance the flavor of other substances, to which its own flavor is often complementary, such as chocolate, custard, caramel, coffee, and others. Vanilla is a common ingredient in Western sweet baked goods, such as cookies and cakes.</span></p> <p><span>The food industry uses methyl and ethyl vanillin as less-expensive substitutes for real vanilla. Ethyl vanillin is more expensive, but has a stronger note. Cook's Illustrated ran several taste tests pitting vanilla against vanillin in baked goods and other applications, and to the consternation of the magazine editors, tasters could not differentiate the flavor of vanillin from vanilla; however, for the case of vanilla ice cream, natural vanilla won out.[66] A more recent and thorough test by the same group produced a more interesting variety of results; namely, high-quality artificial vanilla flavoring is best for cookies, while high-quality real vanilla is slightly better for cakes and significantly better for unheated or lightly heated foods. The liquid extracted from vanilla pods was once believed to have medical properties, helping with various stomach ailments.</span></p> </body> </html>
MHS 104
Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)
Cacao Tree Seeds (Theobroma cacao)

Cacao Tree Seeds (Theobroma...

Price €4.00 (SKU: V 86
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Cacao Tree Seeds (Theobroma cacao)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 2 seeds.<br /></strong></span></h2> <p><strong>As you can see from our pictures, our cocoa variety is larger than all others.</strong></p> <p>Theobroma cacao also cacao tree and cocoa tree, is a small (4–8 m (13–26 ft) tall) evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae, native to the deep tropical region of America. Its seeds are used to make cocoa powder and chocolate.</p> <p><strong>Description</strong></p> <p>Leaves are alternate, entire, unlobed, 10–40 cm (3.9–16 in) long and 5–20 cm (2.0–7.9 in) broad. The flowers are produced in clusters directly on the trunk and older branches; this is known as cauliflory. The flowers are small, 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) diameter, with pink calyx. While many of the world's flowers are pollinated by bees (Hymenoptera) or butterflies/moths (Lepidoptera), cacao flowers are pollinated by tiny flies, Forcipomyia midges in the order Diptera.[2] The fruit, called a cacao pod, is ovoid, 15–30 cm (5.9–12 in) long and 8–10 cm (3.1–3.9 in) wide, ripening yellow to orange, and weighs about 500 g (1.1 lb) when ripe. The pod contains 20 to 60 seeds, usually called "beans", embedded in a white pulp. The seeds are the main ingredient of chocolate, while the pulp is used in some countries to prepare a refreshing juice. Each seed contains a significant amount of fat (40–50%) as cocoa butter. Their most noted active constituent is theobromine, a compound similar to caffeine.</p> <p><strong>Taxonomy and nomenclature</strong></p> <p>Cacao (Theobroma cacao) belongs to the genus Theobroma classified under the subfamily Sterculioidea of the mallow family Malvaceae. Cacao is one of 22 species of Theobroma.</p> <p>The generic name is derived from the Greek for "food of the gods"; from θεος (theos), meaning "god," and βρῶμα (broma), meaning "food".</p> <p>The specific name cacao is derived from the native name of the plant in indigenous Mesoamerican languages. The cacao was known as kakaw in Tzeltal, K’iche’ and Classic Maya; kagaw in Sayula Popoluca; and cacahuatl[dubious – discuss] in Nahuatl.</p> <p>The cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum, is a closely related species also grown in Brazil. Like the cacao, it is also the source for a kind of chocolate known as cupulate or cupuaçu chocolate.</p> <p>The cupuaçu is considered of high potential by the food and cosmetics industries.</p> <p><strong>Distribution and domestication</strong></p> <p>T. cacao is widely distributed from southeastern Mexico to the Amazon basin. There were originally two hypotheses about its domestication; one said that there were two foci for domestication, one in the Lacandon area of Mexico and another in lowland South America. More recent studies of patterns of DNA diversity, however, suggest that this is not the case. Motomayor et al.[4] sampled 1241 trees and classified them into 10 distinct genetic clusters. This study also identified areas, for example around Iquitos in modern Peru, where representatives of several genetic clusters originated. This result suggests that this is where T. cacao was originally domesticated, probably for the pulp that surrounds the beans, which is eaten as a snack and fermented into a mildly alcoholic beverage.[5] Using the DNA sequences obtained by Motomayor et al. and comparing them with data derived from climate models and the known conditions suitable for cacao, Thomas et al. have further refined the view of domestication, linking the area of greatest cacao genetic diversity to a bean-shaped area that encompasses the border between Brazil and Peru and the southern part of the Colombian-Brazilian border.[6] Climate models indicate that at the peak of the last ice age 21,000 years ago, when habitat suitable for cacao was at its most reduced, this area was still suitable, and so provided a refugium for the species. Thomas et al. speculate that from there people took cacao to Mexico, where selection for the beans took place.</p> <p>Cacao trees grow well as understory plants in humid forest ecosystems. This is equally true of abandoned cultivated trees, making it difficult to distinguish truly wild trees from those whose parents may originally have been cultivated.</p> <p><strong>History of cultivation</strong></p> <p>Cultivation, use, and cultural elaboration of cacao were early and extensive in Mesoamerica. Ceramic vessels with residues from the preparation of cacao beverages have been found at archaeological sites dating back to the Early Formative (1900-900 BC) period. For example, one such vessel found at an Olmec archaeological site on the Gulf Coast of Veracruz, Mexico dates cacao's preparation by pre-Olmec peoples as early as 1750 BC. On the Pacific coast of Chiapas, Mexico, a Mokaya archaeological site provides evidence of cacao beverages dating even earlier, to 1900 BC. The initial domestication was probably related to the making of a fermented, thus alcoholic beverage.</p> <p>Several mixtures of cacao are described in ancient texts, for ceremonial or medicinal, as well as culinary, purposes. Some mixtures included maize, chili, vanilla (Vanilla planifolia), and honey. Archaeological evidence for use of cacao, while relatively sparse, has come from the recovery of whole cacao beans at Uaxactun, Guatemala and from the preservation of wood fragments of the cacao tree at Belize sites including Cuello and Pulltrouser Swamp. In addition, analysis of residues from ceramic vessels has found traces of theobromine and caffeine in early formative vessels from Puerto Escondido, Honduras (1100-900 BC) and in middle formative vessels from Colha, Belize (600-400 BC) using similar techniques to those used to extract chocolate residues from four classic period (circa 400 AD) vessels from a tomb at the archaeological site of Rio Azul. As cacao is the only known commodity from Mesoamerica containing both of these alkaloid compounds, it seems likely these vessels were used as containers for cacao drinks. In addition, cacao is named in a hieroglyphic text on one of the Rio Azul vessels. Cacao was also believed to be ground by the Aztecs and mixed with tobacco for smoking purposes</p> <table style="width: 712px;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2" valign="top" style="width: 708px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>growing instructions</strong></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Vermehrung:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">Seeds</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Pretreatment:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">soak seeds for 2-3 hours in warm water.</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Stratification:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">0</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">all year</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing depth:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">See picture 6</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing substrate:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">Use high-quality, sterile potting soil</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing temperature:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">+25 - +28°C</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing Location:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">bright + keep constantly moist, not wet</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Germination time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">2-4 weeks.</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Note:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">direct Sow onto bed in May.</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Watering:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">Water regularly during the growing period</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong> </strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><br /><span style="color: #008000;"> <em>Copyright © 2012 Seeds Gallery - Saatgut Galerie - Galerija semena. </em><em>All Rights Reserved.</em></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </body> </html>
V 86
Cacao Tree Seeds (Theobroma cacao)
Black Corn Seeds Black Aztek

Black Corn Seeds Black Aztek

Price €2.45 (SKU: VE 2 (2.5g)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Black Corn Seeds Black Aztek</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;" class=""><strong>Price for Package of 10 (2,5g) seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>One of the few black corn varieties, the Black Aztec traces back to the 1800s. The plant (1,8 meters tall) produces high yields of beautiful 20 to 25&nbsp; centimeters long black corn. Excellent variety for roasting and grinding into cornmeal. It's a good choice for cornmeal or flour. Also used for fall decorations. An excellent choice for home gardens and market growers.</p> <p>Over the years it has been known as, or synonymous with, 'Black Aztec', 'Black Sugar', 'Black Sweet', 'Mexican Sweet', and simply as 'Mexican'.</p> <p>The finest seeds through the finest seeds selection process to ensure the quality of the seeds, great disease tolerance as well as very high germination.</p> <p>Name: BLACK AZTEK</p> <p>Days to maturity: 75 days.</p> <p>Plant height: 1,8 meters tall</p> <p>Planting Season: Spring/Summer</p> <p>Sunlight Requirement: Full Sun</p><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
VE 2 (2.5g)
Black Corn Seeds Black Aztek

Variety from America

This plant is resistant to winter and frost.
Sugar beet seeds Authority...

Sugar beet seeds Authority...

Price €1.75 (SKU: P 8
,
5/ 5
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> <h2><strong>Sugar beet seeds Authority - Heirloom</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 20 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>Sugar beet - a cold-resistant, light-loving culture, medium-demanding to the fertility of the soil. Sugar beet gives high stable yields, easy to transport. Sugar beet loves heat, light, and moisture.</p> <p>The amount of sugar in the fruit depends on the number of sunny days in August — October. Sugar beet is used not only for making sugar but also for feeding animals.</p> <p>The optimum temperature for seed germination is 10–12 ° C, growth, and development is 20–22 ° C. Shoots are sensitive to frost.</p> <p>Name: Sugar beet Authority<br />Harvest: 75-100 days<br />Root weight: 500-850 g<br />The sugar content: 18-21%<br />Sowing depth: 2-3 cm.</p> <p>tion temperature: 10-15 ° C.</p>
P 8 (20 S)
Sugar beet seeds Authority - Heirloom
Persian lime Seeds – limoo, Tahiti lime  - 3

Tahiti Lime Seeds (Citrus...

Price €1.95 (SKU: V 119
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Persian lime Seeds – limoo, Tahiti lime,  Bearss lime (Citrus latifolia)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 2 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>Persian lime (Citrus × latifolia) or limoo is also known as Tahiti lime or Bearss lime (named after John T. Bearss, who developed this seedless variety about 1895 in his nursery at Porterville, California), is a citrus fruit related to the standard lime. It has a uniquely fragrant, spicy aroma.</p> <p>The fruit is about 6 cm in diameter, often with slightly nippled ends, and is usually sold while green, although it yellows as it reaches full ripeness. It is also widely available dried, as it is often used this way in Persian cooking. It is larger, thicker-skinned, with less intense citrus aromatics than the key lime (Citrus aurantifolia).</p> <p>The advantages of the Persian lime in commercial agriculture compared to the Key lime are the larger size, absence of seeds, hardiness, absence of thorns on the bushes, and longer fruit shelf life.</p> <p><strong>They are less acidic than key limes and don't have the bitterness that lends to the key lime's unique flavor.</strong></p> <p>Persian limes are commercialized primarily in six sizes, known as 110s, 150's, 175's, 200's, 230's and 250's. Once grown primarily in Florida in the U.S, it rose to prominence after Key lime orchards were wiped out there by a hurricane in 1926, according to the American Pomological Society, subsequently, Persian lime orchards themselves were devastated by Hurricane Andrew in 1992. Large numbers of Persian limes are grown, processed, and exported every year primarily from Mexico[1] to the American, European and Asian markets. U.S. Persian lime imports from Mexico are handled mostly through McAllen, Texas.</p> <p>Persian limes originate from the Far East and were first grown on a large scale in Persia (now Iran) and southern Iraq.</p> </body> </html>
V 119
Persian lime Seeds – limoo, Tahiti lime  - 3

Best seller product

This plant is resistant to winter and frost.
Juniper Berry Seeds (Juniperus communis) 1.65 - 2

Juniper Berry Seeds...

Price €1.95 (SKU: MHS 77
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Juniper Berry Seeds (Juniperus communis)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 20+ seeds (10 fruits).</strong></span></h2> <p>Common Names: Common Juniper, Dwarf Juniper, Ground Juniper, &nbsp;Hackmatack, Hapusha, Horse Savin, Juniper, Juniper Bark, Juniper Berry, Juniper Bush, Kuei, Melmot Berry, Mountain Berry</p> <p>Synonyms: Genevrier. Ginepro. Enebro. Gemeiner Wachholder, Genevrier, Ginepro, Enebro, Baccae Juniperi, Enebro, Genevrier, Ginepro, Juniperus communis, Kuli, Wacholder</p> <p>German=Wacholder, French=Genievre, Spanish=Junipero, Italian=Ginepro, Chinese=Kuli, Pin Yin=Du Song Zi.</p> <p>Forms: Juniper berry tea or tincture, fresh whole or dried powdered juniper berries</p> <p>Used plant part: The berry-like cones. They take two years to mature. Fruit, essential oil, cade oil. The ripe, carefully dried fruits, leaves.</p> <p>Habitat: Europe. North Africa. North Asia. North America.</p> <p>Flowering time: Late spring and early summer.</p> <p>Astrology: A solar shrub.</p> <p>Sensory quality: Aromatic with a sweet accent, similar to the South American pink pepper. See also licorice for a discussion of sweet spices.</p> <p>&nbsp;Aroma and flavor: The fruit, or berry, of this species is used to flavour &nbsp;foods and alcoholic beverages, particularly gin, which is named after Juniperus through the French genievre. Juniper berries have a fragrant, spicy aroma and a slightly bittersweet flavor.</p> <p><strong>WIKIPEDIA:</strong></p> <p>A juniper berry is the female seed cone produced by the various species of junipers. It is not a true berry but a cone with unusually fleshy and merged scales, which give it a berry-like appearance. The cones from a handful of species, especially Juniperus communis, are used as a spice, particularly in European cuisine, and also give gin its distinctive flavour. Juniper berries have been called the only spice derived from conifers, although tar and inner bark from pine trees is sometimes considered a spice as well.</p> <p>All juniper species grow berries, but some are considered too bitter to eat. In addition to J. communis, other edible species include Juniperus drupacea,[2][3] Juniperus phoenicea,[4] Juniperus deppeana, and Juniperus californica.[5] Some species, for example Juniperus sabina, are toxic and consumption is inadvisable.</p> <p><strong>Characteristics</strong></p> <p>Juniperus communis berries vary from four to twelve millimeters in diameter; other species are mostly similar in size, though some are larger, notably J. drupacea (20–28 mm). Unlike the separated and woody scales of a typical pine cone, those in a juniper berry remain fleshy and merge into a unified covering surrounding the seeds. The berries are green when young, and mature to a purple-black colour over about 18 months in most species, including J. communis (shorter, 8–10 months in a few species, and about 24 months in J. drupacea).[2] The mature, dark berries are usually but not exclusively used in cuisine, while gin is flavoured with fully grown but immature green berries.</p> <p><strong>Uses</strong></p> <p>The flavor profile of young, green berries is dominated by pinene; as they mature this piney, resinous backdrop is joined by what Harold McGee describes as "green-fresh" and citrus notes.[7] The outer scales of the berries are relatively flavourless, so the berries are almost always at least lightly crushed before being used as a spice. They are used both fresh and dried, but their flavour and odour are at their strongest immediately after harvest and decline during drying and storage.</p> <p>Juniper berries are used in northern European and particularly Scandinavian cuisine to "impart a sharp, clear flavor"[1] to meat dishes, especially wild birds (including thrush, blackbird, and woodcock) and game meats (including boar and venison).[8] They also season pork, cabbage, and sauerkraut dishes. Traditional recipes for choucroute garnie, an Alsatian dish of sauerkraut and meats, universally include juniper berries.[9] Besides Norwegian and Swedish dishes, juniper berries are also sometimes used in German, Austrian, Czech, Polish and Hungarian cuisine, often with roasts (such as German sauerbraten). Northern Italian cuisine, especially that of the South Tyrol, also incorporates juniper berries.</p> <p>Juniper, typically Juniperus communis, is used to flavor gin, a liquor developed in the 17th century in the Netherlands. The name gin itself is derived from either the French genièvre or the Dutch jenever, which both mean "juniper".[1] Other juniper-flavoured beverages include the Finnish rye-and-juniper beer known as sahti, which is flavored with both juniper berries and branches.[10] The brand Dry Soda produces a juniper-berry soda as part of its lineup. Recently, some American distilleries have begun using 'New World' varieties of juniper such as Juniperus occidentalis.</p> <p>A few North American juniper species produce a seed cone with a sweeter, less resinous flavor than those typically used as a spice. For example, one field guide describes the flesh of the berries of Juniperus californica as "dry, mealy, and fibrous but sweet and without resin cells".[12] Such species have been used not just as a seasoning but as a nutritive food by some Native Americans.[13] In addition to medical and culinary purposes, Native Americans have also used the seeds inside juniper berries as beads for jewellery and decoration.</p> <p>An essential oil extracted from juniper berries is used in aromatherapy and perfumery.</p> <p><strong>Health</strong></p> <p>While generally recognized as safe, juniper berries may have various side effects that have not been tested extensively in clinical trials. Doses of more than a few berries or regular consumption may cause serious kidney damage. Pregnant or breastfeeding women should avoid use, mainly due to an increased risk of miscarriage, even in small doses. Caution is also advised in diabetics, as it might lower blood sugar, and in persons with bleeding disorders or after surgery.</p> <p>Juniper berry was first intended as a medication since juniper berries are a diuretic. They were also believed to be an appetite stimulant and a remedy for rheumatism and arthritis[citation needed]. Native Americans are reported to have used the juniper berry as an appetite suppressant in times of hunger. Juniper berry is being researched as a treatment for diet-controlled diabetes, as it releases insulin from the pancreas, hence alleviating hunger. It is also said to have been used by some tribes as a female contraceptive.</p> <p><strong>History</strong></p> <p>Juniper berries, including Juniperus phoenicea and Juniperus oxycedrus have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs at multiple sites. J. oxycedrus is not known to grow in Egypt, and neither is Juniperus excelsa, which was found along with J. oxycedrus in the tomb of Tutankhamun.[16] The berries imported into Egypt may have come from Greece; the Greeks record using juniper berries as a medicine long before mentioning their use in food.[17] The Greeks used the berries in many of their Olympics events because of their belief that the berries increased physical stamina in athletes.[18] The Romans used juniper berries as a cheap domestically produced substitute for the expensive black pepper and long pepper imported from India.[4] It was also used as an adulterant, as reported in Pliny the Elder's Natural History: "Pepper is adulterated with juniper berries, which have the property, to a marvellous degree, of assuming the pungency of pepper."[19] Pliny also incorrectly asserted that black pepper grew on trees that were "very similar in appearance to our junipers".</p><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
MHS 77 (10 F)
Juniper Berry Seeds (Juniperus communis) 1.65 - 2